Lip balms are fun and easy to make. You only need a few ingredients: a liquid vegetable oil, such as sunflower oil or sweet almond oil; a vegetable butter, like shea butter or cocoa butter; and a wax, which is usually beeswax or candelilla wax for a vegan option. Those are the key ingredients to make a soothing, conditioning balm for your lips. You can leave it unflavoured, or you can add flavour using lip-safe flavour oils or essential oils. If you wish, you can even sweeten your balm with a few drops of stevia. And if you want to add a bit of colour to your lips, you can use lip-safe micas or colourants. Don’t use food colouring!
Here is a quick and easy recipe that I that I often use as my base. It uses 1 part beeswax, 2 parts butter and 3 parts oil. It’s an easy formula to remember: 1, 2, 3!
ONE: Add the oil and beeswax into a heat proof glass jug, such as Pyrex (available at your supermarket, Briscoes or the Warehouse), and melt it on high in the microwave for 2 minutes. Depending on the microwave, you might have to leave it in for longer or shorter to melt the beeswax. You can substitute the beeswax for candelilla wax if you want a vegan option, just remember to only use half the amount of candelilla wax. For this recipe, this would be 1/2 tablespoon candelilla wax.
TWO: Add the butter that you are using, I’m using cocoa butter here. If the butter isn’t melting completely, or if you notice the mixture starting to cool down and solidify, just pop it back into the microwave again for another 20 seconds.
THREE: Next stir in your flavour oil or essential oil of your choice. Make sure these oils are lip-safe! Not all fragrances are approved for use on lips! Check with the supplier if you are not sure. The most common essential oils that are safe for lips are: peppermint, spearmint, anise, sweet orange, rose, lavender, vanilla absolute, rosemary and tea tree.
Most citrus oils are considered photosensitising and should not be used in lip balms, especially here in New Zealand where the sun’s rays are stronger than in the Northern Hemisphere. There are exceptions, however, grapefruit and lemon essential oils can be used in very low doses (max 6 drops in one tablespoon of oil), and sweet orange essential oil is considered a safe oil and can be used in lip balm.
FOUR: Pour the mixture carefully into your lip balm pots and leave them to cool down and harden completely before putting the lids on. If you put on the lids while balms are still warm, you risk getting condensation on the inside of the lids.
1 tablespoon beeswax (or use 1/2 tablespoon candelilla wax for a vegan option)
2 ml lip-safe flavour oil or essential oil
optional: 1/2 – 1 teaspoon of lip-safe mica or colourant
6 lip balm pots (15 ml)
Add the oil and beeswax in a heat proof glass jug (i.e. Pyrex) and microwave for 2 minutes.
Once the beeswax has melted, stir in the shea butter. If the mixture starts to solidify, pop it back into the microwave for another 20 seconds.
Stir in your choice of flavour oil or essential oil. If you are planning on adding colour to your lip balm, add this as well and give it a good stir. Make sure your mixture is completely liquid before you pour it.
Carefully pour the mixture in container and leave to harden and cool down completely before putting the lids on.
Balms are very versatile and can be made for many uses, depending on what ingredients are added. By using conditioning, moisturising oils and butters, you can make a balm for
softening rough skins on your hands and feet. Using infused oils or adding essential oils will also affect the properties of the balm. Lavender soothes the mind and the body. Calendula is a well-known skin healer. Tea tree, manuka, thyme are anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal. Use arnica infused oils in muscle balms. And lemongrass and eucalyptus in an insect repellent balm.
A good place to start formulating balms is by using equal parts of wax, oil, and butter. This will give you a good, solid balm. If you want a softer and more spreadable consistency, add more oil or reduce the amount of wax and butters you are using. A salve will have a ratio upwards of 4 parts of oil to one part of wax. The balm of this recipe uses slightly less butter and wax, but will still leave you with a fairly solid balm.
In a heat proof glass jug (i.e. Pyrex) and add your vegetable oil, such as olive oil or sunflower oil, and your beeswax (or candelilla wax for a vegan balm). Heat it on high in your microwave for 2 minutes or until the beeswax is fully melted.
Add your vegetable butter, for example cocoa butter or shea butter, and stir until the butter has completely melted. If you find the mixture is starting to harden, pop it back in the microwave for another 30 seconds or so until it is liquid again.
Next, add your essential oils and give it another good stir. I’m using orange essential oil here, which is why it is a bright colour 😉
Finally, carefully pour the balm into the pots and leave them overnight to harden and cool down. Don’t put the lids on, otherwise you will find it will have formed condensation on the inside of the lids, which is a unwanted environment for mould growth.
50 ml vegetable oil (such as olive oil, sunflower oil, etc.)
25 g butter (such as shea butter or cocoa butter)
25 g beeswax (or 15 g candelilla wax plus 10 g extra oil for a vegan option)
2 pots (50ml)
4 ml essential oils
In a heat proof glass jug (i.e. Pyrex), combine the oil and wax. Place it in the microwave and heat on high for 2 minutes initially and then in 1 minute increments until the beeswax has completely melted. Be careful when removing the jug from the microwave, as the mixture will be very hot!
Add the butter and stir until melted. If the butter doesn’t melt completely or if the mixture is starting to harden, pop it back in the microwave for 30 seconds.
When the mixture is completely liquid, add your essential oils and stir to completely mix in.
Pour the mixture into your pots. Allow to fully cool and harden overnight before putting the lids on.
First off, I know I’m spelling soap molds wrong. I’m spelling it the American way, because I don’t like ‘mould’ in, on, around or to describe any of my products. Mould is icky, which I try to avoid at all cost. So if I ever do write mould, then you know that I really mean the stuff that is unwanted. In the meantime, mold equates to something good, like soap molds. Yes, I know, I’m weird that way sometimes!
So let’s get back to the soap molds. When you make soap you need to take in account the technique you’re using. For example, raw cold process soap has a high pH and the chemical process can make the soap reach a very hot temperature. Also you need to be able to remove the soap, so the soap needs to be a bit flexible. For these reasons, you need to keep clear of any metal or glass molds when using the cold process technique.
On the other hand, if you are using a melt and pour base, you don’t have to be as careful. Glass is still not recommended, because glass is solid and doesn’t give way, which makes it difficult to remove the soap. Small metal molds, for example the ones they used to use in baking, can be used. Just gently tap the mold on the table and it should slide out. If a soap does get stuck in a mold, you can pop the soap in the freezer for about 15-30 minutes and it should come out easy after that.
The best molds to use are made of plastic or silicon. In recent years, silicon has seen a popularity boost both cooking and crafts, and they have come down in price considerably. They’re also available in all shapes and sizes and you can find them in shops like the Warehouse, Briscoes, and your supermarket. If you like more specialised molds, check out the soap making suppliers here in New Zealand like Pure Nature and Go Native, or have a look on Trade Me.
You can also make your own wooden soap box for making loaves of soaps, which you can then cut into even bars. Be aware that if you do use wood, you will need to line your box with baking paper, to prevent the soap from sticking to the wood. The advantage of using baking paper, is that you can easily lift the soap out of your box, when it has hardened.
But you don’t need to spend money on molds. You can re-use or recycle containers and pots, such as custard cartons and yoghurt pots. I like using my 500ml Campbell’s Soup cartons (and no the soap does not smell like soup afterwards!). I’ve made some pretty soaps using these cartons.
Where you can buy soap molds
The Warehouse has various silicon muffin and cupcake trays, as well as silicon ice cube trays that can be used.
Many supermarkets also have limited stock of silicon muffin trays, but they also have small plastic storage containers, such as those from Gladwrap or Pam’s. I use these in my soap workshops. The 700 ml Gladwrap container will give you 4 well-sized bars of soap.
Spotlight has plastic chocolate molds that you can use for soap making.
Go Native has a range of special silicon molds for soap making.
Aussie Soap Supplies also has large range of soap molds, both heavy duty plastic and silicon. However, they do have a minimum order of AU$100 and charge and extra AU$15 handling fee for international orders.
If you are making larger batches of soap, you might want to check out Hawthorn Bay, also located in Australia. They have large soap boxes with reusable liner and acrylic dividers, which can make 42 bars of soap at a time.
Melt and pour soap is basically melting a pre-made soap base and then pouring it into a soap mold, hence the name! Although some soapers consider using this method as ‘cheating’, I find that there are some techniques where melt and pour is the more suitable soap than cold process soap. For example, where a design asks for clear cut straight lines or when you are using molds with intricate designs. More on soap molds, check out this post here.
In addition, melt and pour soap also comes as a clear soap base (also known as glycerin soap), which is an advanced soap making technique if you want to do this yourself. In the past few years, many kinds of melt and pour soap bases have become available, such as goats milk, olive oil, shea butter, honey, and even a wobbly jelly-like soap base! Personally, I like using melt and pour soap bases because you can create some pretty cool soaps with it, plus your soap is ready to use as soon as it sets. Great for last minute gifts!
The technique of melting and pouring the pre-made soap is very simple. Cut up the required amount of melt and pour soap base into small cubes and place them in a heat proof glass jug (i.e. Pyrex, available at supermarkets, Briscoes or the Warehouse). In short bursts of no more than 20-30 seconds each, melt the soap in your microwave. Be careful your soap does not boil! If you don’t have a microwave, you can melt the soap on the stove using the double boiler method (placing one smaller pot inside a bigger pot of water).
Once your soap has melted, add your fragrance and colour and give it a good stir. You can use essential oils or skin-friendly fragrances. To colour your soap, you can use special soap dyes or powders, micas, or liquid food colouring. Note that colours added to a white soap base will become pastel coloured. To achieve bright vivid colours, you will need to use a clear soap base. And if you find your soap has hardened in the meantime, just pop it back into the microwave again for another 20 seconds.
Carefully pour the soap into your soap mold. If there are any bubbles on the surface, you can disperse them by spritzing some isopropyl alcohol (available from pharmacies) on it. Leave the soap to harden fully before removing from the mold.
Because melt and pour soap contains glycerin, a humectant, which attracts moisture, it is important to wrap your soaps in glad wrap as soon as they have cooled down and hardened. Especially here in New Zealand when it can be very humid, you’ll find beads of water on the surface of your soap if you leave them unwrapped.
Cold process soap making is one of the most popular soap techniques. Cold process means that there is no heat added to the process of soap making. As opposed to hot process soap making, during which the soap is cooked to speed up the saponification process (turning the oils into soaps). The heat in cold process is created only by the chemical reaction. You can control this heat during the first 12 hours of the curing phase by either insulating or cooling the soap, but this is a rather advanced technique, therefore in this tutorial we will work with our oils and lye at room temperature and leave the soap to cure without heat control.
The equipment you need for making cold process soap
a heat proof polypropylene (PP) jug or container, or a tempered glass jug, like a Pyrex jug for your lye (roughly 500 ml capacity)
a microwave proof jug or bowl to mix your soap in
digital scales at 1g increments
a 1 litre empty milk/custard/soup carton (I’m using a 1L Campbell’s soup carton) or a silicon soap or cake mold with approximate 500 ml volume
silicon spatula and whisk
You can buy your material from The Warehouse or Briscoes if you’re in New Zealand, or Big W, Kmart and Target in Australia.
Ingredients you need to make for this basic soap recipe
150g olive oil
125g coconut oil
100g rice bran oil
53g caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH)
120 ml water
15 ml essential oil or fragrance
This recipe is comprised of olive oil, coconut oil, rice bran oil, and castor oil. All the recipes featured here on In My Soap Pot are palm free. This recipe is an alternative formulation to the usual coconut/palm/olive trio in soap making, but will still produce a nice solid bar of soap with a rich creamy lather. These oils all offer something different to the soap. Coconut oil will give the soap firmness as well as a fluffy lather. Olive oil adds mildness to the soap. Rice bran oil is added for its skin conditioning properties, which prevents the soap from becoming too drying out to the skin.
If you are using fragrance, make sure it is a fragrance that is skin-safe. Candle fragrances are usually not suitable, unless specified that they are safe to use on skin. Similar when using essential oils: stick to the ‘safe’ essential oils like sweet orange, lemon, peppermint, lavender, rose geranium, cedarwood, lemongrass and stay clear of the more problematic and skin irritating essential oils like cinnamon, wintergreen, etc.
This recipe contains a 5% superfat, which means that 5% of the oils will not be turned into soap and are “free floating” in the soap. Superfatting will make your handmade soap less drying to your skin than commercial soaps, but will also act as a safeguard against caustic soap.
Caustic soda is used for drain cleaning, which is why you’ll probably find it in the cleaning section at your hardware store. Make sure you buy a caustic soda that contains at least 98% pure caustic soda. The other 2% are an additive that prevents the caustic soda from clumping together. A bit like the tapioca starch in icing sugar. Both caustic soda brands pictured above actually tell you that it’s ‘perfect for making soap’, which me wonder if they are bought more often for making soap than for actual drain cleaning!
In New Zealand, you can buy caustic soda from Bunnings Warehouse. Mitre 10 has stopped stocking pure caustic soda a few years ago.
Alternatively, if you live in or near West Auckland, you can also buy your caustic soda directly from Pure Nature, but because it is classed as a chemical hazard material, you have to pick it up from their warehouse in Henderson (no shipping!)
Cold process soap making
Prepare your lye
Prepare your oils and fats
There are three main steps in soap making. First, you need to prepare your lye solution. Then, you need to weigh out your oils. And lastly, you pour the lye into your oils and stick blend it to soap. Soap making isn’t complicated, but it does require you to work accurately and safely.
And although this might seem like a simple soap recipe, it will actually teach you the necessary skills to continue on to more advanced techniques. Many beginner soap makers become discouraged because they immediately attempt a difficult and advanced soap technique, rather than starting with he basics. Make a simple batch or two first. (As a little side note, my favourite soaps are just plain simple white, single fragrance soaps!)
SAFETY FIRST: If you haven’t done so already, please read this post about safety and precautions when handling lye and caustic soda. Always wear safety goggles and gloves to protect your eyes and skin!
PREPARE: Before you start, it is helpful to have your material and ingredients set out. You don’t want to be running around looking for batteries for your scales or realising you’ve run out of olive oil!
ONE: Fill a propylene (PP) container or jug or a tempered glass jug with the required amount of water from your tap. If you are in a hard water area (bore or ground water) use distilled water. If you are using rain water or reservoir water, you can use the water straight from the tap. For more information about water and soap making, check out this article!
Weigh out your caustic soda in a separate cup or container.
Then slowly and carefully add the caustic soda to the water. Gently stir, avoiding any splashes, until the caustic soda has fully dissolved and the liquid is clear.
This is now called lye (water + caustic soda). Place the container with the lye solution in the sink and leave it to cool down to room temperature.
You will notice that the lye will get very hot and give off fumes. Make sure you don’t breathe in the caustic fumes!
TWO: Weigh out your coconut oil in the big heat proof bowl/jug/container and place the jug in the microwave for approximately 60 seconds on high, or until the coconut oil has melted.
Weigh out the other oils and combine with the coconut oil.
THREE: Check if the lye solution has cooled down to room temperature (around 25 degrees C). If the outside of the jug feel cool to touch, it will be at approximately the right temperature.
Carefully pour the lye into jug containing the oils.
Place your stick blender into the oil/lye mixture and start pulsing (turn on the stick blender for about 5-10 seconds and stop, stir the mixture with the stick blender turned off, and then turn it on again for another 5-10 seconds, and so on).
When the mixture has turned a runny custard-like colour and consistency, and you can see no oil streaks in the mixture, your soap mixture is ready and in soap making terms is called ‘at trace’. This is when all the oils and lye have been blended together and emulsified, starting the saponification process (turning the lye/oil mixture into soap).
FOUR: Add your essential oil or fragrance. If you are using fragrance, make sure it is skin-safe (candle fragrances are usually not safe for use in cosmetics). If in doubt ask your supplier!
Give the soap mixture another quick pulse to mix in the fragrance completely.
FIVE: Pour the soap into the mold and then gently tap the mold on the bench a few times to remove any bubbles that are in the soap. The tapping will help the bubbles come to the surface.
Let the soap sit in the mold for a few days, before unmolding.
Once the soap is hard enough, remove it from the mold and cut into bars. If the soap is still a bit soft, let it set for a few more days before cutting.
Allow the soap to cure for another 6-8 weeks to completely finish the saponification process (turning the oils into soap) and for all the water contained in the soap to evaporate. The longer you leave a soap to cure, the harder and longer lasting it will become. You can tell when a soap hasn’t been cured long enough because the soap gets mushy in the soap tray!
Before starting, make sure you wear protective goggles and gloves and work in a well-ventilated area, free from any distractions!
125 g Coconut Oil
100 g Olive Oil
100 g rice bran Oil
25 g castor oil
50 g sodium hydroxide NaOH (caustic soda)
120 ml water (distilled if you have hard water)
10 ml fragrance or essential oil of your preference
heat proof jugs or containers
digital scales at 1g increments
a 1 litre empty milk/custard/soup carton (i.e. Campbell’s Soup) or a soap mould (500 ml capacity)
silicon spatula and whisk
Measure out the water in the smaller heat proof jug (i.e. Pyrex) and weigh out the caustic soda in a separate small container.
Slowly and carefully add the caustic soda to the water and gently stir until all the granules have fully dissolved and the liquid is clear. Set in the sink to cool.
Weigh out the coconut oil in a microwave proof jug or bowl and heat on high in the microwave for 60 seconds or until the coconut oil has completely melted.
Weigh out the other oils and combine with the coconut oil.
Once the lye and the oils have cooled to room temperature, carefully add the lye to the oils and stick blend in 10 second pulses until all streaks of oils have disappeared and the mixture has emulsified.
Add the fragrance and stir to blend the fragrance throughout the soap.
Carefully pour the soap into your mold. Keep the soap in the mold for 3-4 days before cutting, and then cure for a further 6-8 weeks.
Where to buy your ingredients and material
Pyrex jug, scales, stick blender, whisks and spatulas can be bought from Briscoes or the Warehouse
Disposable gloves are available at most supermarkets
Your local hardware store (i.e. Bunnings Warehouse) stocks caustic soda as well as protective eye goggles
You can buy olive oil, coconut oil, and rice bran oil from your supermarket
If you are located in or near West Auckland you can buy your caustic soda from Pure Nature, as well as all your other oils and essential oils for this project