Posted on 2 Comments

Frappucino Soap

Difficulty: Intermediate
Time: 1 hr
Yields: 1200 g soap or approximately 10-12 bars

I love my coffee! Even when it’s hot and muggy in summer, I like to drink coffee, preferably ice cold and with cream on top. In my opinion, one of the yummiest inventions is the creation of the frappucino! What would we do without them?

One of the problems with making coffee and chocolate scented soaps is that most of the coffee and chocolate fragrances discolour your soap brown. To avoid this, I added titanium dioxide to the cream of the soap. The soap also contains coffee grounds, which gives it a bit of an exfoliating effect, but not too much, just enough for using it daily in the shower.

The fragrances I’m using here are Chocolate Fudge and Fresh Coffee from Candlescience, which you can purchase from Pure Nature. The mica is Antique Bronze from Mica Your World. And the paper straws I purchased from AliExpress.

Before starting, please read the safety and precautions post, especially since this tutorial requires the handling of caustic soda!

If you have never made cold-process soap before, I strongly recommend you check out the basic cold process soap tutorial first.

ONE: Prepare your lye as usual and leave it to cool down to room temperature. I always place my lye in the sink, for safety reasons.

I’ve added 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate to my lye solution. Sodium lactate is a natural additive derived from the fermentation of natural sugars, and it helps to make the soap harder allowing to unmould it quicker.

TWO: Weigh out the coconut oil and cocoa butter in a microwaveable jug or bowl, and heat in the microwave until the oils have melted. Then add the liquid oils to the now melted coconut oil and cocoa butter.

THREE: Add the fragrance. I’m using coffee fragrance to which I’ve added a little chocolate fragrance.

FOUR: Once the lye has cooled down to room temperature, and making sure you are still wearing protective goggles and gloves, carefully add the lye to the oils.

FIVE: Use a whisk or stick blender to mix the oils and lye to thin trace.

SIX: Separate roughly 1 1/2 cups of soap into a separate container. This will be your ‘cream’ on top.

And separate another cup of soap for the uncoloured soap in the swirl.

SEVEN: Add the brown mica to the remaining soap in the pot.

EIGHT: Separate another 2/3 cup of soap and add the coffee grounds. Give it a good stir to get rid of all the clumps.

I’m using the content of one of the Nespresso pods, which is roughly a little more than a teaspoon.

You should now have two cups of soap, one uncoloured and one with the coffee grounds, and the brown coloured soap in the main pot. You should also have the ‘cream’ part separated in another container.

NINE: To do an ITPS (in-the-pot swirl), pour the colours into three spots in your soap, as shown in the image. Make sure you pour them from a height so that the colour reaches the bottom. I poured each colour twice in each spot.

Then take your spatula, and move the spatula in a circle through the soap once or twice, but no more. The more you move it, the more you will blend the colours together. If you want more distinction between your colours only go round once. I did two circles in my soap, one smaller and one bigger circle.

TEN: Pour the swirled soap into your mould.

ELEVEN: Add the titanium dioxide to the soap in the separate container. I added it straight in powder form, but it’s better if you mix it with a little water before adding, to avoid white specks in your soap. Use your stick blender to mix it to a thick trace.

TWELVE: Use a teaspoon to plop the soap on top. I did three lines and then two more lines on top of the other three, to create this whipped cream appearance.

Cut the straws into roughly 2-3 inches and then stick them diagonally into the soap.

THIRTEEN: Leave the soap to cure for a day or two before unmoulding. Then let it sit for another day before cutting the soap into bars. I used a thin filleting knife to cut this soap 12 bars. The bars will need another 6-8 weeks of curing.

The soap smells absolutely delicious. Very much coffee with a hint of chocolate. Just how I like my frappucino!

Frappucino Soap

  • Difficulty: intermediate
  • Print
Before starting, make sure you wear protective goggles and gloves and work in a well-ventilated area, free from any distractions!

Ingredients

  • 400 g olive oil
  • 300 g coconut oil
  • 100 g cocoa butter
  • 150 g rice bran oil
  • 50 castor oil
  • 141 g caustic soda
  • 280 g water
  • 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate
  • 25 ml coffee fragrance
  • 5 ml chocolate fragrance
  • 1/4 tsp titanium dioxide
  • 1/2 tsp brown mica
  • 1 tsp coffee grounds
  • 10 paper straws

Directions

  1. Measure out the caustic soda and the water. Then add the caustic soda to the water  (not the other way round!) and stir until the caustic soda has completely dissolved.
  2. Add 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate to the lye solution and set aside to cool down.
  3. Weigh out the coconut oil and cocoa butter and melt in the microwave or on the stove top until completely melted.
  4. Add the olive, rice bran and castor oils to the now liquid coconut oil and cocoa butter.
  5. Then, add 25 ml of coffee fragrance and 5 ml of chocolate fragrance to the oils and give everything a good stir.
  6. Check if the lye has cooled down to room temperature, and making sure you are still wearing protective gear, carefully pour the lye to the oils and, using a whisk or stick blender, mix until emulsified (thin trace).
  7. Pour about 1 1/2 cups of soap into a separate jug. This will be the ‘cream’.
  8. Separate another cup of soap into a different cup or container.
  9. To the remaining soap, add 1/2 teaspoon of brown mica and give it a quick mix with the stick blender.
  10. Fill another cup with the brown soap, and add to it 1 teaspoon of coffee grounds. Mix well.
  11. You should now have one container with soap for the cream.
  12. You should also have one cup of uncoloured soap, one cup of brown coloured soap with coffee grounds, and the main pot should contain the brown soap.
  13. To do an ITPS (in-the-pot-swirl): In three spots, like a triangle, pour the uncoloured and coffee-grounds soap into the brown soap in the main container. Do this twice, and each time pour into the same three spots.
  14. Stick the spatula into the soap and move it around in a circle through the soap. Do this only once or twice.
  15. Then pour the soap into the mould.
  16. To create the cream: Mix the titanium dioxide with a little water and add it to the remaining soap in the other jug or container. Use your stick blender to mix it until a thick trace.
  17. Plop the soap onto the surface of the swirled soap with a teaspoon.
  18. Cut the straws into 2-3 inches length, and stick them into the soap diagonally.
  19. Leave the soap to cure a couple of days before unmoulding, and then let it stand for another few days before cutting into bars. The soap bars will need to cure for a further 6-8 weeks until ready for use.

 

 

Posted on 13 Comments

Natural deodorant

Difficulty: Beginners
Time: 20 mins
Yields: 1 tube (85 ml)

Having tried all sorts of natural deodorants, including crystal deodorants (remember those), and being quite fussy when it comes to deodorants, I decided to create my own.

This solid deodorant is completely natural, including the environmental friendly cardboard tube it comes in, which you can order from Go Native. It contains no aluminium or other synthetic ingredients. Likewise, it contains no baking soda, which can be irritating to some skins (like mine) and other harsh ingredients. Instead, I focussed on using only natural ingredients that are effective, yet mild on the skin.

To absorb sweat, I used a combination of tapioca starch and bentonite clay. Bentonite clay is a highly absorbent natural clay (see this article about the properties of clays), and it will keep you feeling dry and clean.

Shea butter helps with the glide, but it is also moisturising and easily absorbed into the skin. This helps leave the absorbing clay and starch on the surface of the skin to do its work, without creating a messy paste.

Avocado is also well absorbed into the skin, but it also contains beneficial nutrients and vitamins, to help keep your skin healthy and nourished.

Beeswax is what makes this deodorant solid and at these proportions will deliver just the right amount of deodorant to your skin. Not too much and not to little!

And lastly I used a special blend of essential oils to keep you feeling fresh:

  • Lemon myrtle: like tea tree, it is anti-bacterial, killing off those smelly bacteria, but unlike tea tree, it has a pleasant fresh lemon scent!
  • Rosemary: has also antiseptic properties, helping to keep your skin healthy
  • Lime: is refreshing but is also deodorising and cleansing
  • Spearmint: not only refreshingly cool, but it will also help soothe skin. Great for sensitive, irritating skins (especially from shaving!)

All the ingredients, including the essential oils, are available from Pure Nature.

ONE: Weigh out your avocado oil, beeswax, and shea butter in a small pot. I use my pot straight on the stove, but if you prefer you can use a double boiler or bain marie method. Heat on the lowest setting on your stove until all the beeswax and shea butter has melted.

TWO: Stir in the tapioca starch and bentonite clay and mix briskly using a whisk.

THREE: Add the essential oils, and mix.

FOUR: Pour the mixture into the tube. If the mixture has started to set, just pop it back on the stove for a moment until it becomes fluid again.

Once you’ve filled the tube, let it set and cool down completely before putting the lid on. This will prevent condensation forming on the inside of the lid.

Natural solid deodorant

  • Difficulty: easy
  • Print

Ingredients

  • 30 g beeswax
  • 20 g shea butter
  • 30 g avocado oil
  • 20 g tapioca starch
  • 15 g bentonite clay
  • 25 drops lemon myrtle essential oil
  • 15 drops rosemary essential oil
  • 15 drops lime essential oil
  • 5 drops spearmint essential oil

Directions

  • Melt the beeswax, shea butter and avocado oil in a small pot on the lowest setting on your stove.
  • Using a whisk, mix in the tapioca starch and bentonite clay.
  • Add the essential oils.
  • If the mixture has started to set, gently heat it on the stove again until fluid.
  • Pour the mixture into the tube. Let it cool down completely before putting the lid on.
Posted on 5 Comments

Lemon Myrtle Soap

Difficulty: Intermediate
Time: 1 hr
Yields: 1200 g soap or approximately 10 bars

Recently I was debating the benefits manuka essential oil vs tea tree essential oil, when one of my Australian soap friends mentioned Lemon Myrtle. I’d heard of lemon myrtle before, but I’d never used it in any of my products. Discussing the properties of lemon myrtle soap, I soon came to realise that lemon myrtle is totally underrated. We always think of tea tree oil as being The Wonder-Oil, but lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), also native to Australia, is just as powerful if not more so. And it has the added bonus that, unlike tea tree, it smells delicious! (Can you tell I’m not a huge fan of the tea tree scent?)

So let’s begin with the fragrance. Lemon myrtle is said to smell more lemon-y than lemon itself, and I’d say that statement is pretty accurate. Lemon myrtle oil contains more citral compound, which is what gives lemon its lemon scent, than lemon oil. In fact, lemon myrtle has over 90% pure citral compound compared to 10% found in lemons. In soap, the fragrance of lemon myrtle essential oil is also stronger and longer lasting than lemon essential oil, which, like all citrus oils, are very volatile and fleeting, and don’t hold well in soap. Lemon myrtle is definitely more expensive than lemon, if you are going for fragrance only, but there is a lot more to lemon myrtle than just a pleasant aroma.

Like tea tree and manuka, it is considered to have anti-viral, antimicrobial, anti-fungal, antiseptic properties, but is also anti-inflammatory, soothing and calming, reduces redness and itchiness, and has an uplifting and refreshing effect on the mind. Like the popular tea tree/lavender combination, it can be used to treat problem skins, cuts and grazes, insect bites and stings, rashes, inflammations and infections. In soap, which is a wash off product, it adds an antimicrobial and antiseptic aspect to the cleansing properties of the soap, which makes it ideal for hand soaps, which need that bit of extra disinfection from dirt, grime and germs.

The soap we are making here is a natural, yet effective hand soap, to which I’ve added lemon peel powder to give it a bit of extra scrub. Both the lemon myrtle essential oil and lemon peel powder I am using in this soap are available from Pure Nature.

Before starting, please read the safety and precautions post, especially since this tutorial requires the handling of caustic soda!

If you have never made cold-process soap before, I strongly recommend you check out the basic cold process soap tutorial first.

ONE: Prepare your lye as usual and leave to cool down to room temperature. I’ve added 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate, which is a natural additive, to my lye solution to make the soap harder and easier to unmould.

TWO: Weigh out the coconut oil and shea butter in a microwaveable jug or bowl, and heat in the microwave until the oils have melted.

THREE: Add the liquid oils to the melted coconut oil and shea butter.

FOUR: Add the lemon myrtle essential oil to the oils, and give everything a good stir.

FIVE: Once your lye solution has cooled down to room temperature, add the lye to the oils.

Use your stick blender to mix the lye/oil blend until it has emulsified, and is still fluid. For those working with trace, you’ll want a thin trace.

SIX: Separate 1/3 of the soap into a separate jug or bowl.

SEVEN: To the remaining 2/3 of the soap, add 1 tablespoon of lemon peel powder. Lemon peel powder is a gentle exfoliant, unlike pumice, so if you want more exfoliation, you can add a heaped tablespoon of lemon peel powder.

Mix with the stick blender until medium trace – thin enough to pour, but thick enough to be able to support layers.

EIGHT: Give the smaller portion of soap in the jug, a quick burst with the stick blender to thicken up the soap to the same consistency of the lemon peel powder soap. Then add 1 heaped teaspoon of poppy seeds, and then stir it through with a spatula or spoon.

NINE: To assemble the soap, first pour about half of the lemon peel powder soap into the mould, and gently tap the mould on the bench to even out the layer. Next, pour all of the poppy seed soap over the first layer. To prevent the soap from breaking through and disturbing the previous layer, pour the soap over the flat part of the spatula to spread out the stream of pour. Lastly, pour the remainder of the lemon peel powder soap over the poppy seed layer.

TEN: Use a spoon to texture one side of the soap, and sprinkle some poppy seeds over the other half.

ELEVEN: Let the soap cure for a couple of days before unmoulding, and then let it harden for another few days before cutting it into bars. The bars of soap will need a further 6-8 weeks to cure before they are ready for use.

Lemon Myrtle Soap

  • Difficulty: intermediate
  • Print
Before starting, make sure you wear protective goggles and gloves and work in a well-ventilated area, free from any distractions!

Ingredients

  • 400 g olive oil
  • 250 g coconut oil
  • 100 g shea butter
  • 200 g sunflower oil
  • 50 castor oil
  • 138 g caustic soda
  • 280 g water
  • 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate
  • 30 ml lemon myrtle essential oil
  • 1 tbsp lemon peel powder
  • 1 tsp poppy seeds

Directions

  1. Measure out the caustic soda and the water. Then add the caustic soda to the water  (not the other way round!) and stir until the caustic soda has completely dissolved.
  2. Add 2 teaspoons of sodium lactate to the lye solution and set aside to cool down.
  3. Weigh out the coconut oil and shea butter and melt in the microwave or on the stove top until completely melted.
  4. Add the olive, sunflower and castor oils to the now liquid coconut oil and shea butter.
  5. Then, add 30 ml of lemon myrtle essential oil to the oils and give everything a good stir.
  6. Check if the lye has cooled down to room temperature, and making sure you are still wearing protective gear, carefully pour the lye to the oils and, using a stick blender, mix until emulsified (thin trace).
  7. Separate about 1/3 of the soap into a jug.
  8. To the remaining 2/3 of the soap, add 1 tablespoon of lemon peel powder and mix with the stick blender until medium trace.
  9. Give the soap portion in the jug a quick mix with the stick blender until it has the same consistency (medium trace) as the lemon peel powder soap.
  10. Then add 1 heaped teaspoon of poppy seeds to the soap and mix it through with a spoon or spatula.
  11. To assemble: first pour half of the lemon peel powder soap into the mould, then pour all of the poppy seed soap over the first layer, and lastly, pour the remaining lemon peel powder soap over the poppy seed layer.
  12. Use a spoon to texture one half of the soap surface, and sprinkle poppy seeds over the other half.
  13. Leave the soap to cure a couple of days before unmoulding, and then let it stand for another few days before cutting into bars. The soap bars will need to cure for a further 6-8 weeks until ready for use.

 

 

Posted on 2 Comments

Finding gifts for the soap maker

Looking for a gift for your soap maker bestie, partner, secret Santa? Finding gifts can be quite challenging for some people, and let’s be honest, no one wants to be that person who keeps getting it wrong, and boy, finding gifts for soap makers is really, really hard. So here are some suggestions that will help you find something that won’t end up on the ‘bad presents’ pile!

The prettiest gloves for making soap

6242738_00_W460_H600.jpg

Who said soap makers need to look boring? Let them own their style with these pretty gloves and some Dame Edna onion goggles (seen at Spotlight). Gloves available from Farmers for only $19.99.

The little mica sieve

6228546_MAIN.jpg

Working with mica can get pretty messy, especially if you’re silly enough like me to try and blow on it. If your soap maker in your life is struggling to keep their kitchen and their face(!) clean, this little sieve will be their saving grace. Found at Stevens for $9.99.

The summer read

 

The hand cream

TkMyMzk=.jpg

Making soap is a caustic affair and really dries out your hands, despite the gloves. Finding the right hand cream that rehydrates and conditions without leaving your hands greasy hasn’t been easy, but I’m a huge advocate for this one. Not only because it works immediately leaving my hands soft and moisturised, but it also has a lovely subtle fragrance. $24 for 4oz or $40 for 8oz available here.

Wire hangers aka hanger swirl tools

wirehangers

Wire hangers are not quite you had in mind for a Secret Santa or as a stocking filler? I promise you, you’ll hit the jackpot with these wire hangers, also known as hanger swirl tools by soap makers. You see, in New Zealand, we have struggled for years to get some decent swirling tools, and often had to get them shipped from the USA at outrageous shipping costs. But now The Warehouse is stocking them and for only three dollars it will get you ten of these cool tools. So what are you waiting for? Go get them!

The perfect protection

276476xlg

Do they need a little protection from the caustic fumes and splashes? How about a whole lot of protection? Let them go full Breaking Bad mode with this professional top quality $289 protective mask. Add overalls, gloves and solid shoe wear, and they’ll be all set for soap making! Available from Mitre 10.

The not-soap recipe book

Has your kitchen been taken over by a soap maker? (gasp!) Are you sick of seeing, smelling and even tasting soap everywhere? Having to have takeaways for dinner every night? And are all the subtle and maybe not-so-subtle hints not working? How about steering them towards some baking. Not just any baking, mind you, pretzel baking! Pretzels are dipped in lye, which is what gives them their yummy distinctive flavour. So it’s win-win for all! They get to play with some more lye (yippee!), and you get to enjoy the taste of freshly baked pretzels with a German Weiss beer or a cider. Cue relaxing sigh.

Please note, In My Soap Pot and the author of this blog are not affiliated to any of the companies suggested or mentioned in this article or website, and no money is earned by clicking on the links or purchasing the items.

Posted on 2 Comments

Neon swirl soap

Difficulty: Intermediate
Time: 1 hr
Yields: 1250 g of soap
Mould: standard loaf mould

img_3408

I recently discovered neon pigments, available from Pure Nature, and they’re perfect for this easy-peasy swirling method to create these stunning soaps. I loved the bright colours so much, that I repeated the same recipe with three different colour combinations. Yellow and green, pink and orange, and a trio of pink, blue and purple. I’ll let you decide which you like the best!

This recipe is an ideal introduction into swirling after you’ve done a few other soaps. The swirling method is really easy to do and pretty much fail-safe. You just need to make sure you’re using a fluid soap recipe, because one of the most common problems encountered with swirling or any technique that takes time, is that the soap starts to thicken and becomes impossible to pour. This recipe I’m using here is my go-to recipe whenever I need time.  It is an adaption of a pure Castile (olive oil) soap, to which I’ve added castor oil (for extra lather) and sodium lactate, a natural additive which helps speed up the hardening of the soap. The result is a lovely mild cleansing bar of soap with all the good qualities of olive oil, but without the long curing time.


Before starting, please read the safety and precautions post, especially since this tutorial requires the handling of caustic soda!

If you have never soap before, I strongly recommend you check out the basic cold process soap tutorial first, and make several other easier soaps before continuing.

img_4340

ONE: First prepare your lye by weighing out the caustic soda and water. And then, carefully, add the caustic soda to the water (NEVER THE OTHER WAY ROUND!), and stir until the lye water is clear.

Add two teaspoons of sodium lactate, and set aside to cool down. I usually leave my lye solution to cool down in the sink. So in case I knock it over, it will spill into the drains, and the worst thing that will happen is that I have clean drains.

img_5025

TWO: In the meantime, weigh out the olive oil and castor oil in your soap pot, which can be a large stock pot, a pyrex jug, or even an empty 2L ice cream container. Set aside.

neon colours

THREE: While you are waiting, prepare the colours. Mix 1/2 -1 teaspoon of each colour that you will be using with 1-2 teaspoon of oil (for example olive oil) in a small beaker or container.

If you are using just two colours, use 1 teaspoon each, for three colours use 1/3 teaspoon each, and if you are using four colours use 1/2 teaspoon of each colour.

img_5028

FOUR: Once the lye has cooled down to room temperature, and making sure you are still wearing your goggles and gloves, carefully add lye to the oils and then, using a stick blender, pulse and stir to thin trace. Make sure you keep the soap at a very fluid, thin consistency. If you’re worried about getting it too thick, you can also use a whisk and beat the oil/lye mixture until it has emulsified (does not separate). I often can’t be bothered getting my stick blender out and will just whisk the soap. (Yes, that works perfectly fine!)

img_4456

FIVE: Add the fragrance to the emulsified soap mixture and give it a quick stir.

I used different Candlescience fragrances for each of the colour combinations:

  • green and yellow: coconut lime
  • orange and hot pink: mango and tangerine
  • white, bright pink, blue and purple: sweet pea

img_2598

SIX: Separate the soap into roughly equal portions depending on the number of colours you are using and add the colours to each pot of soap. Using your stick blender or whisk, briefly mix each pot until the colour is evenly dispersed through the soap.

Note for the white/pink/blue/purple soap, I left one portion uncoloured.

SEVEN: To create the swirls, pour a line of one colour along the length of your mould. You can either pour to the line on the side or the centre, it’s up to you. If you pour it in the centre, you’ll have a roughly symmetrical soap, like the white/pink/blue/purple soap, and if you have the line more to one side, it will be more skewed, like the yellow/green soap below.

Next pour a line of another colour INTO the same line of soap that you just poured. So instead of pouring the soap next to each other, you keep pouring into the same line over and over again, and this pushes the colours to the side and creates the swirls that you see in the soaps.

You can be a bit more daring, and instead of one line, create two lines into which you pour the soap, just like I did with the orange/pink soap (further below). Or you can change halfway and start a new line on the other side. You can’t really do anything wrong. Even if you don’t hit the previous line of soap exactly, it doesn’t matter, you’ll still get your swirls.

Keep pouring, alternating the colours, into the same line until all the soap has been used up.

Leave the soap somewhere warm and dry, out of direct sunlight, to cure.

EIGHT: After 2-3 days, check if the soap has hardened and isn’t sticky and soft anymore. Don’t be tempted to unmould to soon, like I was with the orange/pink soap. The hardest part of creating swirl soaps is waiting for the soap to become hard enough to unmould. Once it is hard enough, carefully unmould, and cut it into bars. The bars of soap will need a further 6-8 weeks to cure before they are ready for use.

img_2432

Neon swirl soap

  • Difficulty: intermediate
  • Print
Before starting, make sure you wear protective goggles and gloves and work in a well-ventilated area, free from any distractions!

Ingredients

  • 950 g olive oil
  • 50 g castor oil
  • 128 g caustic soda
  • 280 g water
  • 2 teaspoons sodium lactate
  • 1/2 to 1 teaspoon each of the neon colours you are using
  • 30 ml fragrance

Directions

  1. Measure out 280 g of water into a heat proof Pyrex jug. Weigh out 128 g of caustic soda and carefully add it to the water, avoiding any splashes. Gently stir until all the caustic soda has dissolved and the lye solution is clear.
  2. Add two teaspoons of sodium lactate to the lye solution. Set aside to cool down.
  3. Weigh out the olive oil and castor oil in your soap pot. Set aside.
  4. Prepare your essential oil blend. Set aside.
  5. Mix 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of each colour with 1-2 teaspoons of olive oil in a separate pot. The exact amounts depend on how many colours you are using. Set aside.
  6. Once the lye has cooled down to room temperature, and making sure you are still wearing protective goggles and gloves, carefully add the lye to the oils.
  7. Using a stick blender or whisk, stir until the oil/lye mixture has emulsified.
  8. Add 30 ml of fragrance and give it another quick mix with the stick blender.
  9. Divide the soap into roughly equal portions and colour each portion with one of the colour/oil mixture. Briefly mix each pot a quick pulse with a stick blender or whisk until the colour is evenly dispersed through the soap.
  10. Pour a line of one colour along the length of the mould.
  11. Pour another colour of soap into the previous line of soap. Keep repeating the colours until all the soap has been used up.
  12. Place the soap in a warm, dry area to cure.
  13. After 2-3 days, check if the soap is firm enough to unmould. Remove from mould and cut into bars. The bars will need further curing for about 6-8 weeks until ready for use.